In the Nakkula and Toshalis chapter 2, we are introduced to a student named Julian. Julian faces different expectations from the various people in his life (friends, parents, teachers) in a variety of settings. He is having difficulty with how he sees himself and how others see him. When what people expect of him are at odds, he risks being alienated from his peers or people close to him. Julian then works with Mitch, a school counselor, and does context mapping. Context mapping is when you list the different settings and roles you assume throughout the day, and the relationships you have within these different settings. When Julian did this, he was asked to think about which relationships and spaces made him feel safe or anxious, and this helped him to work through his self-identity and expression.
The four different identities are achieved identity, foreclosed identity, moratorium, and diffuse identity.
Achieved identity is when a person works through their conflicts of self-identity and are able to recognize their true self.
Foreclosed identity is when a person assumes a role or identity without exploring alternatives or thinking about other ways that they might be.
Diffuse identity is when a person is exploring many different roles or identities without committing to one. There is more thought given to self-identity at this stage, but not as much as with an achieved identity.
Moratorium is when a person is exploring different roles and identity in their different places and relationships. The difference between diffuse identity and moratorium is that the individual is having a crisis with their identity in the moratorium stage, whereas there is no crisis in diffuse identity.